The final witnesses testified in the Trump fraud trial, and the court has adjourned for a month-long break before closing arguments.

After over 60 days of intense courtroom outbursts, public displays in the hallway, and thorough examinations of intricate accounting details, both parties in the fraud trial of former President Donald Trump in New York have concluded their presentations from expert witnesses. The court has now adjourned for a lengthy recess before concluding statements are given.

The group representing Trump concluded their argument on Tuesday, deviating from their initial plan to have Trump speak, and instead had a passionate and confrontational accounting professor, Eli Bartov, who declared that the charges brought by New York Attorney General Letitia James against Trump were unreasonable.


James’ team brought in two witnesses to counter Bartov’s statement and other professionals called upon by Trump’s attorneys. During Wednesday’s proceedings, Trump’s lawyers frequently raised objections and protests, which took place on 55th Street.

The bench trial had an abnormally high rate.. 

On October 2, he went to the opening statements and traveled by motorcade from Trump Tower on a hot day of nearly 80 degrees to declare that James and the case were “a disgrace.” Later, she criticized his remarks as “unfounded” and his statements to the media as “a performance.”

This was the initial of nine times he would appear in court for the case. He, along with two of his sons and their company, are being accused of earning over $250 million through a supposed plan to deceive banks and insurers about his wealth. Each of the accused parties claim they did not commit any wrongdoing.

On October 3rd, the following day, President Trump shared a disparaging post on his social media platform about a clerk employed by Judge Arthur Engoron, who presided over the case.


Trump’s post received a 1. gag order

The actions initiated a similar battle, causing him to be angry about the restrictions a judge can impose on a accused individual. He and his campaign broke the order twice and were charged $15,000 in penalties.

The initial argument was made by the state and they brought in over 20 individuals to testify, including Trump, his children Donald Trump Jr., Eric Trump, and Ivanka Trump. Also included were defendants who were previously employed by the Trump Organization, Allen Weisselberg and Jeffrey McConney. Ivanka Trump was initially a defendant, but the court dismissed the charges against her because they exceeded the time limit set by the law.

James alleged that Trump provided banks and insurers with financial statements that intentionally contained errors that contradicted commonly accepted accounting principles, known as GAAP. Trump and his sons attributed any false information to their accountants, while their attorneys argued that the statements were compliant with a lesser-known accounting practice called ASC 274. This standard, according to Bartov, is considered less important than GAAP and permits significant leeway for individuals creating asset valuations.

During Trump’s visits to the court, he frequently spoke to reporters who were confined to two pens outside the courtroom. He shared his thoughts on various subjects including the case, the judge, Capitol Hill, and his competitors for the 2024 Republican presidential nomination. On October 25, however, he brought up “an individual who is clearly biased sitting next to” Engoron.

The judge was furious. His clerk, who was the topic of the post on social media that caused the gag order, sits beside him at all times during court hearings. Approximately one hour later, Engoron summoned Trump to testify.

Engoron cross-examined Trump while he was under oath. Trump argued that he was talking about his adversary and ex-“fixer” Michael Cohen, who was sitting just five feet away from the judge. However, Engoron was not convinced. In a previous instance, Trump had been penalized $5,000 for failing to remove a copy of the problematic social media post from his campaign. This time, Engoron imposed a fine of $10,000.

Engoron warned that repeating the action would result in a more negative outcome.

On Nov. 6, James’ team called Trump to the stand. With the fate of his company on the line, Trump clashed with Engoron

James, who was seated in the front row, was subjected to insults.

The judge grew increasingly frustrated as he received lengthy responses to inquiries regarding the value of Trump Organization properties and other concerns. However, Christopher Kise, one of Trump’s lawyers, urged the judge to allow Trump to respond in his own manner.

Kise recommended that it would be more productive to pay attention to the witness’s testimony. His comment elicited laughter from the attorney general’s lawyers, but Engoron did not find it amusing. He became visibly upset and his voice rose, causing issues with his microphone.

“I am not present to listen to his words,” stated Engoron, a phrase that would eventually be utilized in Trump’s campaign requests. “I am here to hear his responses to inquiries. Please take a seat!”

Reworded: A temporary pause was placed on the gag order against Trump by a New York appellate judge on Nov. 16, while an appeal was being reviewed. Shortly after, Trump and his campaign team resumed their attacks on the clerk, mostly through posts on social media. The appeal was eventually denied and the gag order was reinstated on Nov. 30, causing the clerk to receive a flood of threatening messages, many of which were antisemitic, according to an affidavit submitted by a court security officer.

The team of Trump attempted once more to remove the order, but was unsuccessful. The case is currently awaiting a decision from an appeals court.

Trump was expected to testify

On Monday, despite preparations from the security and media, Trump ultimately decided not to appear due to the harsh weather conditions. He announced his change of plans on Sunday evening.

He explained that on Tuesday he was unable to criticize the judge’s clerk due to a restriction.

“I had intended to give my testimony on Monday, even though I had already testified successfully,” he shared on his social media platform. He then continued, “However, the Judge, Arthur Engoron, imposed a GAG ORDER on me, even though I have the right to defend myself. We are currently appealing this decision. Can you imagine being a witness and not being able to speak freely and honestly?”